Cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins and lipopolysaccharides in aerosols from inland freshwater bodies and their effects on human bronchial cells
|Článek v odborném periodiku
|Časopis / Zdroj
|Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
|Fakulta / Pracoviště MU
|Aerosol; Cyanobacteria; Cyanotoxins; Lipopolysaccharides; Inflammation; Inhalation toxicity
|Components of cyanobacterial water blooms were quantified in aerosols above agitated water surfaces of five freshwater bodies. The thoracic and respirable aerosol fraction (0.1-10 mu m) was sampled using a high-volume sampler. Cyanotoxins microcystins were detected by LC-MS/MS at levels 0.3-13.5 ng/mL (water) and < 35-415 fg/m3 (aerosol). Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) were quantified by Pyrogene rFC assay at levels < 10-119 EU/mL (water) and 0.13-0.64 EU/m3 (aerosol). Cyanobacterial DNA was detected by qPCR at con-centrations corresponding to 104-105 cells eq./mL (water) and 101-103 cells eq./m3 (aerosol). Lipopolysac-charides isolated from bloom samples induced IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine release in human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B, while extracted cyanobacterial metabolites induced both pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects. Bloom components detected in aerosols and their bioactivities observed in upper respiratory airway epithelial cells together indicate that aerosols formed during cyanobacterial water blooms could induce respiratory irritation and inflammatory injuries, and thus present an inhalation health risk.