Two Gram-stain-positive, coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains were isolated from abiotic sources comprising stone fragments and sandy soil in James Ross Island, Antarctica. Here, we describe properties of a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus that has a 16S rRNA gene sequence nearly identical to that of Staphylococcus saprophyticus. However, compared to S. saprophyticus and the next closest relatives, the new species demonstrates considerable phylogenetic distance at the whole-genome level, with an average nucleotide identity of <85% and inferred DNA-DNA hybridization of <30%. It forms a separate branch in the S. saprophyticus phylogenetic clade as confirmed by multilocus sequence analysis of six housekeeping genes, rpoB, hsp60, tuf, dnaJ, gap, and sod. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and key biochemical characteristics allowed these bacteria to be distinguished from their nearest phylogenetic neighbors. In contrast to S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, the novel strains are pyrrolidonyl arylamidase and beta-glucuronidase positive and beta-galactosidase negative, nitrate is reduced, and acid produced aerobically from D-mannose. Whole-genome sequencing of the 2.69-Mb large chromosome revealed the presence of a number of mobile genetic elements, including the 27-kb pseudo-staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec of strain P5085(T) (psi SCCmec(P5085)), harboring the mecC gene, two composite phage-inducible chromosomal islands probably essential to adaptation to extreme environments, and one complete and one defective prophage. Both strains are resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, ceftazidime, methicillin, cefoxitin, and fosfomycin. We hypothesize that antibiotic resistance might represent an evolutionary advantage against beta-lactam producers, which are common in a polar environment. Based on these results, a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus is described and named Staphylococcus edaphicus sp. nov. The type strain is P5085(T) (= CCM 8730(T) = DSM 104441(T).