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Permafrost and active layer research on James Ross Island: An overview

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HRBÁČEK Filip NÝVLT Daniel LÁSKA Kamil KŇAŽKOVÁ Michaela KAMPOVÁ Barbora ENGEL Zbyněk OLIVA Marc MUELLER Carsten W

Rok publikování 2019
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Czech Polar Reports
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Citace
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Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.5817/CPR2019-1-3
Klíčová slova active layer; ground thermal regime; climate; snow cover; ground physical properties
Popis This study summarizes the current state of the active layer and permafrost research on James Ross Island. The analysis of climate parameters covers the reference period 2011–2017. The mean annual air temperature at the AWS-JGM site was -6.9°C (ranged from -3.9°C to -8.2°C). The mean annual ground temperature at the depth of 5 cm was -5.5°C (ranged from -3.3°C to -6.7°C) and it also reached -5.6°C (ranged from -4.0 to -6.8°C) at the depth of 50 cm. The mean daily ground temperature at the depth of 5 cm correlated moderately up to strongly with the air temperature depending on the season of the year. Analysis of the snow effect on the ground thermal regime confirmed a low insulating effect of snow cover when snow thickness reached up to 50 cm. A thicker snow accumu-lation, reaching at least 70 cm, can develop around the hyaloclastite breccia boulders where a well pronounced insulation effect on the near-surface ground thermal regime was observed. The effect of lithology on the ground physical properties and the active layer thickness was also investigated. Laboratory analysis of ground thermal propertiesshowed variation in thermal conductivity (0.3 to 0.9 Wm-1K-1). The thickest active layer (89 cm) was observed on the Berry Hill slopes site, where the lowest thawing degree days index (321 to 382°C·day) and the highest value of thermal conductivity (0.9 Wm-1K-1) was observed. The clearest influence of lithological conditions on active layer thickness was observed on the CALM-S grid. The site comprises a sandy Holocene marine terrace and muddy sand of the Whisky Bay Formation. Surveying using a manual probe, ground penetrating radar, and an electromagnetic conductivity meter clearly showed the effect of the lithological boundary on local variability of the active layer thickness.
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