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Nitrated monoaromatic hydrocarbons (nitrophenols, nitrocatechols, nitrosalicylic acids) in ambient air: levels, mass size distributions and inhalation bioaccessibility

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KITANOVSKI Zoran HOVORKA Jan KUTA Jan LEONI Cecilia PROKEŠ Roman SÁŇKA Ondřej SHAHPOURY Pourya LAMMEL Gerhard

Rok publikování 2020
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Citace
www https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-020-09540-3
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09540-3
Klíčová slova Air pollution; Nitroaromatic compounds; Bioaccessibility; Aerosol
Popis Nitrated monoaromatic hydrocarbons (NMAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment and an important part of atmospheric humic-like substances (HULIS) and brown carbon. They are ecotoxic and with underresearched toxic potential for humans. NMAHs were determined in size-segregated ambient particulate matter collected at two urban sites in central Europe, Ostrava and Kladno, Czech Republic. The average sums of 12 NMAHs (sigma(12)NMAH) measured in winter PM(10)samples from Ostrava and Kladno were 102 and 93 ng m(-3), respectively, and 8.8 ng m(-3)in summer PM(10)samples from Ostrava. The concentrations in winter corresponded to 6.3-7.3% and 2.6-3.1% of HULIS-C and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), respectively. Nitrocatechols represented 67-93%, 61-73% and 28-96% of NMAHs in PM(10)samples collected in winter and summer at Ostrava and in winter at Kladno, respectively. The mass size distribution of the targeted substance classes peaked in the submicrometre size fractions (PM1), often in the PM(0.5)size fraction especially in summer. The bioaccessible fraction of NMAHs was determined by leaching PM(3)samples in two simulated lung fluids, Gamble's solution and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF). More than half of NMAH mass is found bioaccessible, almost complete for nitrosalicylic acids. The bioaccessible fraction was generally higher when using ALF (mimics the chemical environment created by macrophage activity, pH 4.5) than Gamble's solution (pH 7.4). Bioaccessibility may be negligible for lipophilic substances (i.e. logK(OW)> 4.5).
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