Informace o publikaci

Photochemical degradation of PCBs in snow.

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Název česky Fotochemická degradace PCBs ve sněhu.


Rok publikování 2007
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Environmental Science & Technology
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Obor Organická chemie
Klíčová slova Photochemistry; Irradiation; Snow; Ice; Persistent organic pollutants; Polychlorinated biphenyls; Hydrogen peroxide.
Popis This work represents the first laboratory study known to the authors describing photochemical behavior of persistent organic pollutants in snow at environmentally relevant concentrations. The snow samples were prepared by shock freezing of the corresponding aqueous solutions in liquid nitrogen and were UV irradiated in a photochemical cold chamber reactor at minus 25 C, in which simultaneous monitoring of snow air exchange processes was also possible. The main photodegradation pathway of two model snow contaminants, PCB 7 and PCB 153 (c 100 ng/kg), was found to be reductive dehalogenation. Possible involvement of the water molecules of snow in this reaction has been excluded by performing the photolyses in D2O snow. Instead, trace amounts of volatile organic compounds have been proposed to be the major source of hydrogen atom in the reduction, and this hypothesis was confirmed by the experiments with deuterated organic co-contaminants, such as d6 ethanol or d8 tetrahydrofuran. It is argued that bimolecular photoreduction of PCBs was more efficient or feasible than any other phototransformations under the experimental conditions used, including the coupling reactions. The photodegradation of PCBs, however, competed with a desorption process responsible for the pollutant loss from the snow samples, especially in case of lower molecular-mass congeners. Organic compounds, apparently largely located or photoproduced on the surface of snow crystals, had a predisposition to be released to the air but, at the same time, to react with other species in the gas phase. It is concluded that physico-chemical properties of the contaminants and trace co-contaminants, their location and local concentrations in the matrix, and the wavelength and intensity of radiation are the most important factors in evaluation of organic contaminants lifetime in snow. Based on the results, it has been estimated that the average lifetime of PCBs in surface snow, connected exclusively to the photoreductive dechlorination process, is 1-2 orders of magnitude longer than that in surface waters when subjected to the equivalent solar radiation. However, in case that the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide in natural snow is sufficient, the photoinduced oxidation process could succeed the photoreductive dechlorination and evaporative fluxes as the major sink.
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